Permaculture is a design system aimed at creating sustainable human habitats by following nature’s patterns. The word “permaculture” comes from “permanent agriculture” or “permanent culture”. At its core, permaculture seeks to work with rather than against nature to meet human needs in an ecologically sound manner.
Permaculture is underpinned by three core ethics:
- Care for the Earth
- Care for People
- Return of Surplus
These ethics guide the practice of 12 key principles for designing permaculture systems:
- Observe and Interact
- Catch and Store Energy
- Obtain a Yield
- Apply Self-Regulation and Accept Feedback
- Use and Value Renewable Resources and Services
- Produce No Waste
- Design from Patterns to Details
- Integrate Rather Than Segregate
- Use Small and Slow Solutions
- Use and Value Diversity
- Use Edges and Value the Marginal
- Creatively Use and Respond to Change
Modern industrial agricultural practices have caused immense environmental damage through deforestation, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, and pollution from chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Permaculture offers a more harmonious and regenerative approach to food production and land stewardship.
Permaculture systems are designed to require fewer external inputs and mimic the diversity, resilience, and resource efficiency of natural ecosystems. The ethics of earth care and fair share guide permaculture practitioners to design integrated systems that can sustainably provide for human needs while restoring environmental health.
Earth Care: Regenerative Land Stewardship
The earth care ethic is the foundation of permaculture’s regenerative approach. It recognizes that human survival is intricately connected to the health of natural systems. Permaculture design principles aim to restore soils, increase biodiversity, conserve water, and establish ecologically balanced food production systems.
For example, keyhole garden beds, swales, and berms are used to capture rainfall and build soil. Companion planting, crop rotation, and polycultures increase plant diversity. And minimizing bare soil with groundcovers and mulch helps suppress weeds and retain soil moisture.
People Care: Supporting Communities
Caring for people is the second core ethic of permaculture. It emphasizes inclusivity, sharing surplus, and building collaborative communities.
Permaculture systems are designed at a human scale and aim to meet basic needs such as fresh food, clean water, and shelter. The people care ethic also encompasses social justice, appropriate technology, and empowering people with skills to become more self-reliant.
Return of Surplus: Generosity and Abundance
The third ethic, return of surplus, promotes generosity, sharing abundance, and limiting consumption to what is actually needed. After people’s basic needs are met, surplus food and resources can be returned to the system or distributed where they are most needed.
This ethic discourages waste and guides the use of excess yield. For example, surplus fruits and vegetables can be preserved, traded, or donated. And nutrients from plant materials and manures are cycled back to enrich soils and nourish new growth.
Path to Sustainability
Permaculture offers an ethical roadmap and practical toolkit for establishing small-scale systems to provide for human needs in balance with nature.
By embracing the ethics of earth care, people care, and the return of surplus, communities can move towards healthier and more just food systems. Regenerative permaculture design can help restore biodiversity, rebuild soils, and increase resilience.
Permaculture provides hope and solutions for transitioning to a sustainable future. Its ethics and principles can be applied in diverse climates and cultures to create thriving, symbiotic human habitats.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Q: What are the 3 ethics of permaculture?**
- A: The 3 ethics are earth care, people care, and return of surplus.
- Q: How does permaculture care for the earth?**
- A: It uses design techniques like swales, keyhole beds, and polycultures to rebuild soils, increase biodiversity, and restore ecosystems.
- Q: What does “people care” mean in permaculture?**
- A: It focuses on inclusivity, meeting basic needs, empowering self-reliance, and building community.
- Q: How does “return of surplus” guide permaculture?**
- A: It promotes sharing extra yields, limiting waste, and cycling nutrients back into the system.
- Q: Why is permaculture important?**
- A: It offers solutions for designing sustainable human habitats and food systems in balance with nature.